Types Of Problems Solved By Expert Systems
Use of Expert Systems
Expert systems are of most value in organizations that possess
a high high-level of know-how experience and expertise. Most corporations
fail to capture this corporate IQ, thereby making it available to
Expert systems are designed to receive, hold and use this corporate
intelligence and provide this knowledge to other members of the
organization for problem-solving purposes.
Types Of Problems Solved
Medical, legal and other professional problems are ideal candidates
for expert systems. Typical problems may include:
- accounting - categorizing entries against tax
- medicine - diagnosing skin lesions
- process control - adjusting product flow based
upon entry variables and output requirements
- financial service - trading systems logic
- production - supply and demand planning systems,
modular factory built homes
- human resources - resource evaluation and fit
Expert systems are used by NASA to plan the maintenance of a space
shuttle in preparation for its next flight. They are also used across
various industries. For ease of classification, expert systems can
be defined in seven main classes of use.
Diagnosis and Troubleshooting Devices and Systems
Expert systems that deduce faults and suggest corrective actions
for a malfunctioning device or process. This may be applied in medical
diagnosis or computer application diagnosis. The diagnostic problem
must be capable of being stated in the abstract: given the evidence
presenting itself, what is the underlying problem/reason/cause?
Planning and Scheduling
Expert systems in this class use a process whereby they:
- analyze a set of one or more potentially complex and interacting
- determine a set of actions to achieve those goals
- and/or provide a detailed order to peform those actions, taking
into account personnel, materiel, and other constraints.
This type of expert system is commonly used today in airline scheduling
[flights, personnel, and gates], manufacturing job-shop scheduling;
and manufacturing process planning.
Design and Manufacturing
These systems assist in the design of physical devices and processes.
Their complexity varies widely, ranging from high-level conceptual
design of abstract entities down to factory floor configuration
of manufacturing processes.
Configuration of Manufactured Objects from Subassemblies
Configuration is where a solution to a problem is synthesized
from a given set of elements related by a set of constraints. Configuration
based expert systems have to date proven one of the most important;
being used in the manufacture of semi-custom minicomputers, modular
home building, manufacturing, and other problems involving complex
engineering design and manufacturing.
Process Monitoring and Control
These expert systems analyze real-time data from physical devices
with the goal of noticing anomalies, predicting trends, and controlling
for both optimality and failure correction.
This class of system is most commonly found in real-time systems
that actively monitor processes in the steel making and oil refining
Financial Decision Making
With the complexity of factors determining the value of finanancial
instruments, it is not surprising that the financial services industry
has been an enthusiastic user of expert system techniques. Financial
markets commonly use expert systems in foreign exchange trading.
Advisory programs are also used to help bankers decide whether
to make loans to businesses and individuals and by insurance companies
use expert systems to assess risk profiles to determine a price
Knowledge publishing is still relatively new, but the potential
for the use of expert systems in this area is evident. Expert systems
best deliver knowledge that is relevant to the user's problem, in
the context of the user's problem.
Two current expert systems in this class include:
- an advisor which counsels a user on appropriate grammatical
usage in a text
- a tax advisor that supports a tax preparation program to advise
the user on tax strategy, tactics, and individual tax policy.
To date, the use of expert systems in AI research has been limited.
Most are extremely narrow in their domain of knowledge, thus making
Early expert systems were prone to making errors that humans would
easily identify. Most were little more than elaborate decision making
systems already in use.
Software Troubleshooting Systems
Try the so called expert system used for troubleshooting in Microsoft
Windows. You will find this in the "help" section in the
menu taskbar. Microsoft has designed their expert system to provide
solutions, advice, and suggestions to common errors encountered
throughout using the operating systems. In practical use, it offers
Computer Video Game AI
Artificial intelligence did not really start to evolve to levels
of any significance until computer games. For example, a sports
video game would generally gather highly detailed simulations of
game strategies from several leading sports team managers.
When a human played the game against the computer, the computer
queried the 'manager' strategic logic to help make a decision on
what strategy to follow. These choices inherit a certain amount
of randomness that is part of the natural system, decided based
on probabilities supplied by 'the experts'.
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